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And where you get variation, you get diversity in all sorts of ways, including how they reproduce.
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BBC Indeed, for many species such as the kobudai, the capacity to switch sex is highly adaptive. Being able to switch sex maximises the chances of passing on genes if environmental or social circumstances should change. This includes the kobudai, other wrasses, many species of parrotfish, and a wide variety of reef fish. In most protogynous fish, some fish will start out lives as male, some will switch from female to male at some point, and some will remain as females for the full duration of their lives. However in other species, the sex skew can be more extreme: Though less common than protogyny, male-to-female sex changes are found in a wide variety of fish, including the Australian barramundi Lates calcarifergilthead seabream Sparus aurata and the black Older asian women having sex in aland Acanthopagrus schlegeli.
In the clownfish Clark's anemonefish Amphiprion clarkii for example, females are larger than males the opposite of the situation for the kobudai. They live in small groups within protective sea anemones, with one breeding male and female pair and a number of subordinate non-breeding fish. There is seldom more than two breeding fish, due simply to space constraints. When the dominant female dies, the largest male transforms into a female. For example, coral gobies Gobiodon and Paragobiodon live within crevices inside coral reefs, move very little during their lifetimes, and have limited opportunity to find new mating partners. If any two fish who happen to find each other can form a male-female mating pair — no matter what sexes they are when they meet — this would be advantageous.
How do fish accomplish this sex-switching mastery? For one, the sex of most fish is not determined by chromosomes: Amphibians, reptiles and fish employ a variety of methods to determine the sex of the offspring. Frequently, temperature determines sex — most fish will preferentially develop as male in warmer water, for example. Moreover, the change can be far more rapid than the long transformation of a kobudai — in the bluehead wrasse, the female-to-male transition is complete within just eight days. A male Kobudai, Japan Credit: BBC The habit of switching sex appears to have developed during fish evolution multiple times in separate families, and though in all of them a suite of genetic and hormonal triggers come into play, the enzyme aromatase appears to be the key.
Moreover, this enzyme is also crucial in what happens in fish who change sex based not on social circumstances but in response to environmental factors.
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Other factors, such as chemical pollutants, changes in the acidity of the water, and the bacterial intestinal parasite Wolbachia zland all affect the activity of aromatase in developing fish embryos. In freshwater fish, it is well established that chemical pollutants — such as the havint atrazine, fertilizer runoff from livestock operations, ethinyl estradiol the active ingredient in the birth control pill — have all skewed the sex populations of wild populations of fish. The foreign-born health advantage appears to decrease as the length of U. The MBR file comprises records owmen all individuals who sfx entitled to Social Security benefits or who are enrolled in Medicare.
The MBR provides information on sex, dates of birth and death, place of residence, and whether the individual is enrolled in Medicare. The Numident file is a record of all applications and re-applications for a Social Security number zland card, and provides information on country of birth and dates of Social Security card applications. The Medicare data linked asiaj Social Security records have been used in several studies to estimate mortality at older ages in the United States Dupre et al. These records are not generally available outside the Social Security Administration; the individual-level data from the MBR and the Numident databases were extracted and merged by the coauthor with access to these records.
The latter alad used to approximate the date of arrival into the United States. Although the date of the original application for a Social Security card is occasionally many years after arrival into the United States, more often the date will be close to the date of arrival, given that a Social Security number is needed to obtain gainful employment and in many other contexts. Study Population We study the mortality of persons aged 65 and over who are enrolled in Medicare Part B medical insurance. A nontrivial number of records that indicate enrollment in Medicare Part A hospital insurance but not in Part B—especially at the oldest ages—belong to individuals who are in fact deceased but whose death was either not reported to the Social Security Administration or not recorded in its files.
Unlike Part A, which is generally free of charge, Part B coverage is purchased with monthly premium payments; the nonpayment of premiums results in the termination of the Part B enrollment, the date of which is recorded in the MBR. This information reduces substantially the possibility that an individual who is deceased is included in our study. Researchers generally agree that mortality estimates at older ages in the United States are most reliable when based on Medicare Part B enrollees Dupre et al. In addition to the fact that the nonpayment of Medicare Part B premiums results in the termination of enrollment in the program, the age reporting in these Medicare records is thought to be superior to age reporting in vital statistics and census data, given that proof of age is required to qualify for Social Security and Medicare benefits.
Our objective is to study the mortality experience of Medicare enrollees while they reside in the United States. We selected persons from the MBR as of November who were enrolled in Medicare Part B at some time during the year period — and whose current or last address if deceased was in one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia DC. We therefore correctly exclude persons who left the United States prior to the study period. However, we also exclude persons who left the United States during the study period, resulting in a slight underestimate of exposure and a corresponding slight overestimate of the probability of dying Kestenbaum ; Elo et al.
We follow the experience of U. Our observation runs through December 31,or their date of death or termination of Medicare Part B enrollment—whichever is earlier. Persons are eligible for Part B if they are Social Security beneficiaries workers, spouses of workers, or children of workers or if they either 1 are U. Because the federal government subsidizes Part B and because state governments typically pay the premiums for poorer individuals, relatively few eligible persons elect not to enroll.
This estimate is based on a published count of From the same publication, With coverage rates this high, the effect of coverage bias on our mortality estimates is likely to be small. The one aspect of coverage bias of which we are aware is employment bias: The still-employed are likely a mix of healthy individuals who choose to work and others who need to remain employed, perhaps because of socioeconomic disadvantage. Published estimates of the proportion of foreign-born residents enrolled in Part B are not available, and coverage levels are likely smaller for the foreign-born than for the U. Among noncitizen permanent residents, some may not have satisfied the five-year residency requirement.
Those who do not have legal permanent residency are also ineligible for enrollment. However, the Census Bureau estimated that inonly 2. Forthe U. This difference partly reflects differences in the timing of immigration by region of birth. Methods We produced life tables beginning at age 65 for the — period from single year of age death probabilities using standard methodology Preston et al.
We present life expectancy estimates for the total population and for the total U. S-born and foreign-born populations. We also present estimates by place of birth and by time of first Social Security number application for the foreign-born.