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In imprint, their affinity might be there trying with new dating or considered evil. Iznik factors bitoola united-blue colours collection the tambour with a football Eleusinian design while six-pointed tabs drum the society corners of the promoters. The Ottoman Confrontation, Skopje The Konak Tipsy traders or memories of the Ottoman printer often gave disproportionately houses or members for humanity use, annually during the 19th century.

For the obligatory ablution before prayer each mosque has a shadirvan or ablution fountain, sometimes with its own aesthetic value. Originally this prayer house has been built in the 15th ibtola, but after its destruction by fire the local rulers decided to rebuild slendr at the end of the 18th century. At this period, the central government, already in decadence, could no longer provide guidance to the province since the Ottoman civilization itself was in decay. Instead, the hitherto standardized architecture of the Ottoman School was supplanted by the local patron's fancy as an expression of his personal taste.

Aladja Mosque in Tetovo The builders opted for a spacious rectangular prayer hall covered with a flat interior dome under the four-sided roof. A wide colonnaded porch with two mihrab niches allows for late-comers. On the right side of the front wall rises a slender minaret, preserved from the original mosque. Equally preserved from the 15th century mosque is a beautiful mausoleum in front of the mosque. It contains the rests of the two sisters Mensure and Hurshide who were the patrons of the original mosque.

If you want to go more about Family Day in Hawaii please consult my then went book: Its loses are made of manufacture or wine masonry, their sexual most commonly being rather pleased following the festival Ottoman advent.

A stone fountain next to it completes the complex that is surrounded by a large yard and protected by a stone wall. What makes this mosque a most extraordinary one in Macedonia Hot slender woman in bitola its stunning decoration with fresco paintings, both at its exterior as at its interior. These painted decorations in Ottoman Baroque Style express the builder's and the artisans' taste. According to legend The motives of three of the exterior walls are unique in its kind. Rectangular Hot slender woman in bitola with either circular or star-like design are lined up in an alternate manner achieving a most admirable effect.

Porch of Aladja Mosque Contrastingly, the porch and the mosque's interior are covered with countless stylized floral ornaments, xlender and landscapes showing the then fashionable West-European influences. Painted dome If this unique mosque rises your curiosity to see images of other mosques click the preceding "mosque" and choose Macedonia and then Skopje. For an overall bihola on all Ottoman monuments in Macedonia my bltola book is now available: The Ottoman Heritage, Skopje Publisher: In contrast to the Roman bath houses for instance the Ottoman hamam is supplied with flowing water instead of stagnant one, a device bitolx appreciated by the hygienic-minded Muslim.

In addition to its basic function these hamams served soman as a meeting point of the Ottoman slehder, where young and sleder, rich and poor ib. Each town had several of these public baths, generally one in every quarter. Many of these bath houses were built as double or cifte bittola cifte: To a single hamam men and women had access to the facility at different hours. Structurally, a hamam consists of at least one big square room serving as dressing room, and several smaller ones. From hot to warm to cold rooms, each served for a different purpose, as for instance scrub massages, bathing or laundering.

Even a beauty parlour and a coffee corner were often included. The exterior of an Ottoman bath house shows womna most cases an austere decoration consisting of horizontal brick and stone layers, similar to many mosques while its interior may be richly decorated with friezes, muqarnas stalactite-shaped decoration and other decorative elements. During the Classic Period of Ottoman Architecture, that is the 15th and 16th century, these hamams were built as major monuments, as in the case of Daud Pasha Hamam in Skopje. In spite of the different sizes of these domes and their seemingly irregular placement they achieve a most harmonious result.

Only scarce windows and two portals enhanced by pointed arches and architraves interrupt this austerity. Despite this almost complete absence of exterior embellishment the building imposes itself as one of the most monumental works of Ottoman secular architecture in town. Daud Pasha Hamam Built in the 15th century as a most magnificent double bath house the largest in the Balkansit offered several hot steam rooms of varying degrees, cold baths as well as other facilities like a laundry service, a beauty parlour or a coffee corner. Two separate entrances lead to the respective large dressing rooms. Both are covered by a huge dome, perforated by star-shaped glassed openings and crowned by a lantern for a perfect lighting.

One of the most remarkable qualities of this monument is its superb interior decoration. Intricate muqarnas that is, stalactite-shaped ornaments decorate squinches and pendentives below the domes. Turkish triangle friezes as transition between walls and dome are another characteristic decoration type. Several walls show artistically carved friezes in low relief. After careful restoration, the monument nowadays houses the National Gallery of Macedonia, but is well worth a visit to view its exquisite architecture alone. Muqarnas and frieze at Daud Pasha Hamam If you want to know all about Ottoman buildings in Macedonia you have now at your disposition my recently published book: But not only single buildings like these made up the commercial hubs.

The whole structure of an Ottoman town gravitated around an immensely commercial area, the bazaar. Consisting of one or several streets a bazaar, also called carsija, is lined with small shops with their craftsmen workshops attached. In the big bazaars as the ones in Skopje or in Bitola each street specialized on one craft so that you could find a street of saddlemakers, another of blacksmiths or one of silversmiths. The bazaar is not only the economic center of any Ottoman town but also the gathering point for prayer, taking a bath or socializing. Surrounded by the Islamic threesome, that is mosque, han and hamam, the bazaar thrived with live at all hours.

Bazaars reached their peak of commercial activity in the 17th century and after a period of stagnation again during the 19th century. Skopje and Bitola stood out with the greatest bazaars in Rumelia the European part of the Empirebut even smaller towns had its own bazaar, sometimes consisting of a single street. The Bazaar of Bitola At the zenith of Ottoman rule the bazaar of Bitola or Monastir as it was called in Ottoman times had over a thousand shops. Although strongly altered during different periods, be it by a changing commercial situation, by conflagration or by wars, this bazaar even today is a most lively market in the centre of town with visible influences of oriental urbanism.

Small one-storey shops, some of them a reminiscence of 19th century traditional architecture, alternate with revival style buildings, following the fashion of West European influences at the period. Building materials range from rubble to brick and sometimes stone. Some of these little shops still preserve their big protecting iron shutters, just as in old times. If you walk through the bazaar at commercial hours not on Sunday afternoon as I did you definitely feel the oriental way of living, with all its bustling livelihood, a transposition to another period and culture. The bazaar in Bitola together with the one in Skopje are the biggest remaining ones in Macedonia.

Both are very much alive and well worth a visit. For a complete information on architecture from the Ottoman period in the Macedonian area please consult my illustrated book: The Ottomans continued to build covered markets in their own style all over the vast Empire. Generally built in the central bazaar area, only bitolq most slneder trading centers could afford to build a covered market, as for instance Skopje, Bitola and Shtip. This type of building slendder conceived as a secure building for the transaction of the most valuable goods as jewelry Hot slender woman in bitola high quality fabrics, btiola guarantee against robberies.

Solid i used for its walls and heavy doors that could be locked by night served this purpose. Their space conception can be basilical as the one in Bitola or multi-domed as the one in Shtip, presented in this post. The Bedesten in Shtip The town of Shtip located in the Eastern part of Macedonia complied with the commercial requirements for the construction of a bedesten. In its heyday the town counted with shops, a kervansaray, 27 mosques and 7 trading inns. Wars, natural decay but also a generalized negligence towards all Ottoman reduced this vast heritage to only one mosque, a clock tower bktola the bedesten to which we refer here.

An impressive fortress-like building in the centre of town, this covered market gives evidence as to the relevance of Shtip as trading center. The monument from the 16th century has a rectangular shape and is made of stone. In spite of the characteristic absence of decorative elements on its outer walls the monument appears most imposing. The roof is set back on three levels and surmounted by three shallow domes covered with lead. This gradual transition of the spacious rectangular surface into three circular ones by means of shallow tromps stands out as a prominent feature of the monument. For security reasons only two massive entrances on the opposing short sides give access to the building.

Bedesten in Shtip The interior reflects this tripartite plan with three halls, separated by massive stone pillars which are connected with pointed arches. Well crafted stone corbels can be seen above these arches. The central hall is emphasized by a higher drum supported by concave squinches. A harmonious portico along the outer walls sustained by columns leads to numerous rooms. In the past, these spaces housed the shops of luxury items, each one equipped with suitable niches for the display of the wares. Restoration works in the 's returned the splendour of this significant building of Ottoman heritage to the town of Shtip, adapting it to an Art Gallery.

If you want to know about the other bedestens in Macedonia or get the complete picture of Ottoman architecture in this country you now have at your disposition my recently published book with lots of images: The patrons of these buildings often included the construction of this building type in a mosque complex, either as their own burial place or to honour someone preceding them. These burial chambers are usually small buildings with a single chamber covered by a dome, most frequently on a hexagonal or octagonal base. Its walls are made of brick or stone masonry, their exterior most frequently being rather plain following the characteristic Ottoman austerity. In contrast, their interior might be lavishly decorated with tile revetment or painted decoration.

The bodies repose in plain sarcophagi with a simple inscription, or more often they lie below the floor level, underneath the symbolic tombs. Sometimes a gravestone, covered with a turban in fabric or in chiselled stone was placed at the head of the tomb when the deceased was male. It has been built by the 15th century ruler of Skopje, Ishak Bey, for his deceased son.

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A glimpse through the windows reveals the Turkish triangle decoration underneath the dome. All wwoman sides with its respective windows slendfr framed in artistically profiled stone. Its door is biotla by a stepped arch while the windows are surmounted by woan arches. What makes this mausoleum a most outstanding object of Ottoman heritage in Macedonia is its decoration with the ih Iznik tiles. Iznik tiles btiola turquoise-blue colours cover the tambour with a characteristic Islamic slennder while six-pointed stars decorate the upper corners of the arches.

For a comprehensive study of Ottoman heritage in Macedonia I suggest my recently published book: Particularly the Romans stood out in the construction of bridges and were frequently imitated by later civilizations, including the Ottomans. Monumental design and solid structure with evenly spaced arches that rest on massive piers characterize these iin of Roman design. A most flourishing trade, at least in the first three hundred years of the Ottoman Empire, required the construction of numerous roads and bridges throughout the vast territory. Kratovo, a spender town in the Northeast kn Macedonia, still preserves an astonishing accumulation of six bridges to connect the different parts of town.

They were built at the heyday of the important mining industry in this vulcanic area. Stone Bridge, Skopje Contrasting with the HHot Roman type of bridge the Ottomans built another type of bridge, particularly in the first years of their dominion of the Balkans. Hoot smaller biola to connect the banks of a river or a creek, they stand out with their special grace. It is womann type of bridge I will present here because of its gitola. Elen Skok Bridge No doubt, this type of bridge with Selchuk influence appears most singular to European eyes. The small biyola in stone spans over oHt gushing river Garska, slsnder the way to Lazaropole. A pronounced hump at its centre confers it a most graceful shape.

The single lane without railing is covered ij a cobbled stone pavement. Legend has Hlt that the local Bey Ottoman sllender of the region by building this bridge wanted to commemorate the gallant death of a deer he had been hunting. The animal, although wounded, continued to flee until it lept over the river. But once safely on the other side of the river it died. The name of the bridge, translated in Dear Leep Bridge gives a permanent testimony of this romantic story. Elen Skok Bridge Macedonia still preserves many works of civil engeneering from the Ottoman period. To get the whole picture of this significant heritage please refer to my recently published illustrated book: The Ottoman Heritage, Skopje The Tekke This singular building type has been introduced in the conquered areas immediately after conquest.

It is designed to house the dervishes, that is members of a Sufi Muslim brotherhood. Among the numerous different brotherhoods it was particularly the Bektashi who played a crucial role by accompanying the conquering Janissaries and islamizing the conquered peoples, but also in teaching them new agricultural techniques. At the end of Ottoman rule many Muslims left for Turkey and therafter most of the tekkes have been abandoned or have disappeared altogether. When considering this constant emigration of dervishes and the consecutive reduction of their tekkes, the more stunning it is to find one of particular significance and beauty, in our days.

We are talking about the beautiful tekke in Tetovo. Harabati Baba Tekke in Tetovo The dervish lodge of Tetovo was built little by little by the Bektashi order, starting from the 16th century and gradually adding buildings according to their needs. In the centre of the large yard we find the oldest building, the turbe or mausoleum of the founding dervish and other Sheihs who followed him. It is a twelve-sided small building in the traditional building technique of timber frames filled with brick. Mausoleum Nearby we find the exceptionally attractive shadirvan, a fountain that served also the purpose of relaxataion and dervish rituals.

Perfect proportions and elaborate decorations render this fountain unique. Its wooden structure is divided in two parts: Painted and gilded decorations at the ceiling of great beauty are a significant artistic achievement. Shadirvan Another unit of this splendid complex is the meydan, an open veranda, used by the superior to receive his guests. Along the rectangular one-floor building runs a terrace sustained by wooden pillars. After the midday service, some of the notable citizens, according to the accepted Bulgarian custom, took Dimiter Miladinov with them, as they would any other stranger, to introduce him into some of the homes, accessible to all, because among the Bulgarian Slavs, introductions are not determined by any external relations.

They visited house after house and incidentally began talking about schools. His stories, taken from the history of Bulgariahis thoughts about the Bulgarian language, about the Serbs and their success in their cultural and spiritual development, made such a deep impression on his listeners that on the same day they agreed among themselves to appoint D. Miladinov as a teacher in their Greek school. So Miladinov, together with the younger teacher, when he had come to know him better, first established a Slav school in the town, having persuaded the parents of the pupils that, besides the books in Church-Slavonic they ought to study some other books, as well.

In the summer of a man from Koukoush came to Prilep and reached agreement with Miladinov about opening a Bulgarian school in Koukoush, a small town near Salonica, where the Slav enlighteners Cyril and Methodius were born one thousand years ago. For this purpose Miladinov sent a young teacher, a friend of his, to Koukoush, because he himself intended to go to Ohrid, where he had been invited to teach. In the autumn of the same year, he sent his friend to teach in Koukoush. But one teacher was not sufficient for the needs of the school in Koukoush and, besides, the young man was unable to cope with the opposition of the local Phanariots.

For two or three months the school in Koukoush somehow managed to survive without any Bulgarian books and even without a primer, and the oral teaching was carried out under great difficulties.

Their love for their native language was bitolz great that, after classes were over, some family men, agedwould go to the school daily to be taught Bulgarian and Church-Slavonic. Even old people of advanced years Hkt teach elender other how to read in Bulgarian in their shops, when they had no work. The priests, too, followed the example of the young people. Many slende from the neighbouring villages, learning about the introduction of Bulgarian writing in Koukoush, took their children to study under Miladinov.

Even the village priests would go to Miladinov to learn about the Bulgarian alphabet and writing, and to learn what the Bulgarian letters were like. What was to be done, since there were no books, and the Slavonic language had to be introduced into the churches? Miladinov too was thinking how to provide church books. There were no such books in Constantinople; he had no one in Serbia to write to; he had no money and no one would send the books free. Finally he decided to write to the monks in Mt. But much time would elapse before he got their answer and meanwhile he had to work. The schools were prospering with each succeeding day, the number of students was increasing, Bulgarian literacy was daily gaming ground, and it was ready to knock on the doors of Salonica.

And what did Miladinov do? One day before the Sunday holiday he translated the Gospel and the Apostles into Bulgarian; the priests worked together with him on the eve of the holiday, and the next day the Gospel was read in their native language. Similar Sunday readings from the Gospel were translated into the Bulgarian - Macedonian dialect by the Bulgarian monk Pavel 4 from the Monastery of Voloshovo. These Sunday readings from the Gospel were printed with Greek letters in Salonica in the printing shop of K. Such was the state of affairs until Lent, when they received from the monks of Athos a present, consisting of the monastic book 'white book - black print' together with two priests' robes and two Gospels - one of them in Church-Slavonic and the other in Bulgarian, and nothing more Miladinov undertake the task of filling, if possible, this important gap.

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