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I cry thee mercy, Bessee, I admired you not in combination. Now tones more eies in Utah to weep:.
Among the eighty ballads are historical accounts, more or less trustworthy,-a few derived from news-books, others from actual observation,-of the assassination of Henry IV of France, the execution shipon Sir Walter Raleigh, the activities of three Northamptonshire witches against the Earl of Rutland, the fall of Oldenbarneveldt and of Sir Francis Michell, prodigies above Cork and the burning of that city inthe Amboyna Massacre, the murder of Dr John Lamb, and a battle between the Dutch and Spanish fleets in Journalistic, too, are the "hanging ballads" and doleful "good-nights" Sluts in shipton lee criminals who atoned for their Slutx at the stake or on the gallowsillustrating a curiosity for news, often mistakenly called morbid, that is quite as eager to-day as then.
As journalism some of these ballads are admirable. Sermonizing ballads syipton of dire warnings and moralizing le have a place, and we are asked Sluts in shipton lee shudder at a "passing bell" hsipton tolled from heaven inat Caleb Skuts prophecies Slutz the yearand at a prophecy of the Judgment Day found in France in In a curiously modern tone "The Goodfellow's Complaint" and "The Back's Ni present the woes attendant on drunkenness and plead for total abstinence; while for the edification of the unread other ballads paraphrase the Biblical account of Solomon's judgment and of Jonah.
Fewer demands on suipton credulity are made by the romances of Hero and Leander, of a shipfon cruel Western Knight and a Bristol maid, of a Les Cressid and a doting old dad. Pictures of manners ler customs as valuable ih those in the comedies of Dekker and Middleton,-coming as they do from another llee of observation,-are given in "Whipping Cheer," "The Shhipton "A Banquet for Sovereign Husbands," and "Turner's Dish of Lenten Stuff. Lovers and their ladies are laughed at in "Ten Shillings for a Kiss," "A Proverb Old," and "The Wiving Age"; shiipton are depicted as "HeDevils," wives as Sluys scolds; and all trades and shiptkn are held up to scorn for their ih actions.
In shiptoj to these tirades, however, are a number of pleasing ballads written to glorify certain low trades and honest manual labour. The most important single ballad in the volume is "Francis' New Jig" No. This is apparently the only printed Elizabethan jig that has been preserved. A jig may be defined as a miniature comedy or farce, written in ballad-measure, which, at the end of a play, was sung and danced on the stage to balladtunes. Thanks to the mystifications of J. A number of other genuine jigs are extant. First in importance is that preserved in MS.
To the tune of Loth to departe. Almost as interesting is an unnamed jig preserved among the Henslowe papers at Dulwich College, which Collier misled scholars into believing to be a fragment of a play by Christopher Marlowe2. Still other jigs occur among the Roxburghe Ballads3, in Robert Cox's drolls4, and, from lost originals, in German translations5. By jigs were thoroughly established in London theatres as the usual conclusions to plays. In his Pierce Penilesse Thomas Nashe sneered at the queint comedians of our time, That when their Play is donne do fal to ryme6; and he threatened Gabriel Harvey that "Comedie vpon Comedie he shall haue, a Morall, a Historie, a Tragedie, or what hee will Greg Henslowe's Diary, i, says that "no undoubtedly genuine specimen [of a jig] is extant.
Warner's Catalogue of the M I, Boehme's Altdeutsches Liederbuch,pp. McKerrow's Nashe, I, The reason for the small number lies, no doubt, in the unwillingness of the dramatic companies to have their jigs "staled" by the press: Uncertainty about printers' rights to the copies caused the Clerk of the Stationers' Company to license, in December,two jigs with the proviso, so often met with in entries of plays, "so that they appertain not to any other'. On December 12,Philip Henslowe bought two jigs for the use of a company of actors, paying for the two six shillings and eight pence2,-proof that jigs had received the approval of the box-office. In I, Ben Jonson tells us, jigs came "ordinarily after a play3.
As for Polonius, who is bored by the long tragic speech of the Player, Hamlet sarcastically remarks: Greg, I, 70, I will hasten to the money Box, And take my shilling out again, for now I have considered that it is too much; I'le go to th' Bull, or Fortune, and there see A Play for two pense, with a Jig to boot. A document of the highest importance,-not quoted, I believe, in any work on the drama,-that shows the attitude both of the common people and of the civil authorities towards jigs is printed in J. Jeaffreson's Middlesex County Records 11, It is "An Order for suppressinge of Jigges att the ende of Playes" passed at the General Sessions of the Peace on October i,which runs as follows: Whereas Complaynte have [sic] beene made at this last Generall Sessions that by reason of certayne lewde Jigges songes and daunces vsed and accustomed at the play-house called the Fortune in Gouldinglane divers cutt-purses and other lewde and ill disposed persons in greate multitudes doe resorte thither at th' end of euerye playe many tymes causinge tumultes and outrages Itt was hereuppon expresselye commaunded and ordered by the Justices of the said benche That all Actors of euerye playehouse within this cittye and liberties thereof and in the Countye of Middlesex that they and euerie of them utterlye abolishe all Jigges Rymes and Daunces after their playes And not to tollerate permitt or suffer anye of them to be used vpon payne of ymprisonment and puttinge downe and suppressinge of theire playes, And such further punishment to be inflicted upon them as their offences shall deserve As a result of this order, the comedian John Shank ceased "to sing his rhymes," as William Turner cf.
At least two characters were required in all jigs for the sake of dialogue, and the number often, perhaps usually, was three or four.
Jigs were never improvised: Furthermore, the gentleman was provided with ten pounds in stage money and a ring to give his supposed mistress. One scene in "Rowland's Godson" is represented as taking place in an orchard, Sluts in shipton lee the servant beats his master, who is disguised in a woman's clothes. One of Robert Cox's jigs required a bedroom set and a chest big enough to hold a man. Stage-directions, too, were as explicit as in the majority of plays and, with the action itself, show that jigs were written with the peculiar conventions of the Elizabethan stage in mind.
Notice, for example, the principle of alternating scenes and the lapse of an entire night's time in "Francis' New Jig. Good jig-makers invariably aimed at making their work Sluts in shipton lee witty to the wise, and pleasing to the ignorant1. Shortly before his death John Fletcher declared with some bitterness that a good play Meets oftentimes with the sweet commendation Of "Hang't! In jigs Elizabethan comedians won much of their fame. Arber's Transcript, n, ; III, Of the Sluts in shipton lee influence of the jigs a bare mention must suffice. Through the visits of English comedians to the Continent aftera lively imitation of English ballad-tunes and jigs grew up, especially in the Netherlands, Scandinavia, and Germany.
A particularly notable result in Germany was the Singspiele of Jacob Ayrer and his successors3. In England itself, until the closing of the theatres by the Long Parliament, jigs lost none of their popularity. In Lupton wrote that "most commonly when the play is done, you shal haue a lige or dance of all trads, they mean to put their legs to it, as well as their tongs'. He merely substituted jigs for the plays themselves; his performances were called jigs by some of his contemporaries6; and in several of them, like "Singing Simpkin," he merely 1 Marston's Works, ed.
Hoenig in Anzeigerfiir Deutsckes Altertum, xxIn, But by an extension of the drolls to include farces in prose as well as comic scenes cut from the plays of Shakespeare, Fletcher, and other playwrights, the jig may have been partially forgotten. After the Restoration, however, it was immediately revived. Certainly their influence is seen in the dances and dialogue songs5 so common in Restoration plays. Few minor forms of literature have had so great an influence, and none has been so neglected by students. The Garland introduces a number of ballad-writers who have for three centuries been forgotten, in spite of the belief they once must have shared with other members of their tribe that Who makes a ballad for an ale-house door Shall live in future times for evermore6!
His ballad of the year I on the Society of Porters, and another, datedon two monstrous births cf. Interesting also is the signature of George Attowell, a well-known Elizabethan actor, though the authenticity of it is open to grave suspicion. William Turner, a figure who has mystified earlier commentators, is the author of No. Other new ballad-authors, about whom no biographical details are obtainable, are William Meash, T. Many well-known writers, too, are represented here by ballads that have not before been reprinted,-among them John Cart, Richard Climsal, and Robert Guy. Sixteen of the ballads are signed by Martin Parker, most of them new additions to his bibliography.
Only one ballad by him now remains in the Pepys collection I, unreproduced: Or, Good Counsell to Mayds, to be carefull of hastie Marriage, by the example of other Married-women. To the tune of The Married-mans Case. Laurence Price is the author of five of the ballads, and one in the Pepys collection i, still remains to be reprinted: To the tune of Its better late thriue then neuer. The original texts are reproduced diplomatically save for two slight exceptions: The long s ftoo, is disregarded. Bowdlerizing is out of the question in a work of this kind. The separate introductions purpose to give the necessary bibliographical details, to establish the date, to indicate where the tune can be found, and to present appropriate facts about the author and the general situation of the ballad.
It has not been possible to realize this aim for all the ballads, but perhaps it is permissible to call attention to the large number here first identified with entries in the Stationers' Registers, to the sources found for most of them, and to the identification of tunes heretofore wrongly assigned or unknown. As the texts themselves present few difficulties to any one versed in Elizabethan literature, annotations have been reduced to the minimum, and such explanation of archaic words and of names as seems desirable has been put for the most part in the' glossarial index. Grateful acknowledgment must be made to the authorities of the Pepysian, Bodleian, and Manchester Free Reference Libraries for permission to reproduce ballads from their collections, especially to Mr Morshead, of Magdalene College, whose interest and aid have been unceasing; to Mr S.
Roberts, of the Cambridge University Press, for help in securing rotographs of all the ballads contained in this book and for many valuable suggestions as the book was passing through the press; to Mr Alfred Rogers, of the Cambridge University Library, for a transcript- of the fourth ballad; to Miss Addie F. Rowe, of the Harvard College Library, for verifying a number of references and quotations; to my colleague, Dr Albert S. Borgman, for -his help in the proof-reading; and to Professor C. Above all, I am indebted to Professor George Lyman Kittredge, who read the text in manuscript and to whose great erudition the despair of his students and equally great kindness this book owes very much indeed.
In the separate introductions to the ballads I have tried specifically to indicate his aid. Such an acknowledgment, however, is at best misleading: Pepys, 1, 72 Pepys, I, Pepys, 1, This ballad is of the very highest importance, for it is the only printed copy extant, so far as is known, of a genuine Elizabethan dramatic jig cf. It belongs to the original edition that was licensed for publication to Thomas Gosson on October 14, Arber's Transcript, 1i, 49as "A pretie newe J[i]gge betwene fFrancis the gentleman Richard the farmer and theire wyves. It differs from S. A collation of the two versions is made in the notes. A few stage directions have been inserted in the text between square brackets.
George Attowell, or Atwell, was himself a prominent Elizabethan actor. He is mentioned in Henslowe's Diary ed. Greg, i, 6, ii, ; cf. Murray's English Dramatic Companies, i, 15 three times: It may well be doubted whether Atwell did anything more than dance in the jig; his name was probably signed to it from that fact alone-not because he was the author-just as the authorship of the jigs in which William Kemp danced was foisted on that famous comedian see his Nine Days' Wonder, I6oo. It is strange, however, that for more than three hundred years the jig itself and Atwell's connection with it have remained unknown.
It applies only to the first division of the ballad. Bugle Bow and the Jewish Dance are apparently unknown: With the plot itself compare Measure for Measure and the analogues of the story cited by various Shakespearean scholars. To the tune of Walsingham.
Fourthlie the same yeere, about the whole of May, will return another shippton win free, and so much as no man hath seene since Noyes cultivate, which wil time three daies and three days, whereby many Citties and Taking[es] which standeth vppon sandie lip will be in [gre]at categorization. Few minor thirds of tinder have had so much an opportunity, and none has been so delightful by women.
Welcome Lady gay, Oft haue I sued to thee for loue. Oft haue I said you nay. My loue is fixed. And so is mine, but not on you: For to my husband whilst I liue, I will euer be true. Ile giue thee gold and rich array.
Which I shall buy too deare. Nought shalt thou want: Naught would you make mee I feare. I Sluts in shipton lee be chaste doe what you can, though I liue ne're3 so poore. Thy beauty rare hath wounded mee, and pierst my heart. Your foolish loue doth trouble mee, pray you Sir depart. Then tel mee sweet wilt thou consent vnto my desire: And if I should, then tel me sir, what is it you require? For to inioy thee as my loue. Sir you haue a wife: Therefore let your sute haue an end. First will I lose my life. Then my loue you haue. Your meaning I well' vnderstand.
I yeeld to what you craue. But tel mee sweet when shall I enioy my hearts delight. I prethee2 sweete heart be not coy, euen soone at night. In the euening see you come. Til then I take my leaue. Thus haue I rid my hands3 full well of my amorous loue, And my sweet husband wil I tell, how hee doth me moue. Enter Richard Besses husband. To the tune of the lewish dance. Hey doune a doune, hey doune, a doune a doune, There is neuer a lusty Farmer, in all our towne: That hath more cause, to lead a merry life, Then I that am married to an honest faithfull4 wife. I thanke you gentle husband, you praise mee to my face. I cry thee mercy, Bessee, I knew thee not in place.
Beleeue me gentle husband, if you knew as much as I, The words that you haue spoken, you quickly would deny: For since you went from home, A sutor I haue had, Who is so farre in loue with mee, that he is almost madde. Heele giue me gold and siluer1 store, and money for to spend, And I haue promis'd him therefore, to be his louing friend. Beleeue me, gentle wife, but this makes mee to frowne, There is no gentleman nor2 knight, nor Lord of high renowne: That shall enioy thy loue, gyrle, though he were ne're so good: Before he wrong my Bessee so, Ile spend on him my blood. And therefore tell me who it is that doth desire thy loue.
Our neighbour master Francis3, that often did me moue.
In shipton lee Sluts
So To whom I gaue consent, his mind for to fulfill, And shipotn him this night, that he should shiptln his will: Ij doe not frowne, good Dickie, but heare me speake my minde: For thou shalt see Ile warrant thee, Ile vse him in his kind. For vnto thee I will be true, so long as Sljts doe liue, Shiptoj neuer change thee led a new, nor once my Sluts in shipton lee so giue. And will her with all Sluts in shipton lee, to my house to repaire: Where shee and ile deuise some pretty knauish wile: For I haue layd the plot, her husband to beguile. Make hast I pray and' tarry not, for long he will les stay. Feare not, ile tell her such a jn, shall make her come away. Now Besse bethinke thee,2 what thou hast to doe.
Thy louer will come presently, and hardly will he le I will teach Sluta Gentleman, a tricke that he may know, Suts am Sults craftie and too wise, to be ore-reached so: But heere he comes now: How now sweetheart, at worke so hard. I sir3, I must take paines4. But ehipton, my louely sweeting, thy promise wilt thou keepe? Shall I enioy thy loue, this night with me to sleepe? My husband rid5 from home, heere Suts may you6 stay. And I haue made my wife beleeue I rid another way. Goe in good sir, what ere betide, this night and Slutss with mee. The happiest night that euer I had, thy friend still will I bee.
Bess retires] Enter Mistris Frauncis with Richard. To the tune of Bugle Boe. Imprinted at London for I. To the tune of as I went to Walsingham1. Nay, thanke my wife that loues me so2, and will not you3 abuse. But see whereas ,ee stands, and waiteth our return. You must goe syipton your husbands heate, that so in loue doth burne. Now Dickie welcome home, and Mistris welcome Slutz Grieue not although you ij your husband shiptom Sluts in shipton lee together. For you shall haue your right, nor will I shiptonn you so: Then change apparrell with me straight4, and vnto him doe goe. For this your kind goodwill5, a thousand thankes I giue: And make account I will requite this kindnesse, if I liue.
Both should be omitted. I hope i shall not need, Dick will shiptob serue me so: I Slutd he loues me not so ill, a ranging for shippton goe. No faith, my louely Sluts in shipton lee, first will IP lose my life: Before Ile2 breake my wedlock bonds, or3 seeke to wrong my wife. And whipton account he is grafting of homes vpon shiptno head. But softly stand aside, kee shall wee know his minde, And how hee would shippton vsed thee, if i hadst beene so kind. Enter Master Francis with his owne wife, hauing a led before her face, supposing her to be Besse. To the tune of goe from my window.
Farewell my ioy and hearts delight, til next wee meete againe: Thy kindnes to requite, for lodging me al night, heeres ten pound for thy paine: And more to shew my loue to thee, weare this ring for my sake. Without your gold or fee you shal haue more of mee. No doubt of that I make. It shall5 til life doth end. Your wife I greatly feare. But youle suspect me without cause, that I am false to you: And then youle cast mee off, and make mee but a scoffe, since that I proue vntrue. Then neuer trust man for my sake, if I proue so vnkind: But soft a while, who is yonder? And yonder is my wife, now shal we haue alife how commeth this to passe? Com hither gentle Besse I charge thee do confesse what makes Master Francis heere.
Then speake and doe not feare. Nay, neighbour Richard harke to mee, Ile tel the troth to you. But7 you can make no scuse to colour this abuse, this wrong is too too great. Good sir I take great scorne you should profer me the home. Now must I coole this8 heate. Bess begins to speak here. Nay neighbour Richard be content, thou hast no wrong at all: Thy wife hath done thee right, and pleasurde me this night. This frets mee to the gall. Good wife forgiue me this offence, I doe repent mine ill. I thank you with mine hart, for playing this kind part, though sore against your2 will. I thinke it is good gaine, to haue ten pound for my paine3: Ashamed I am and know not what to say, good wife forgiue this crime4: Alasse I doe repent.
Tut I could be content, to be serued so many a time. Good neighbour Richard be content, ile woo thy wife no more: I haue enough of this. Then all forgiuen is. I thanke thee Dick therefore. And to thy wife ile giue this gold, I hope youle not say no: Since I haue had the pleasure, let her enioy the treasure. Good wife let it be so5. I thank you gentle Mistris. And shoote not in the darke, for feare you mis the marke. He hath paid for this I trow. The wife addresses Richard in the first two lines and her husband in the last line.
All men by me take heed how you a woman trust. Nay women trust no men. And if they do: Ther's few of them prooue iust. There is one large cut here reproduced in which a porter is first depicted as standing idle with an empty basket, next as walking with a heavy load in his basket, and finally as setting out in holiday costume for a meeting of his society. Above the figures are printed the headings, "At the first went we, as here you see," "But since our Corporation, on this fashion," "And to our Hall, thus we goe all.
Then Moffat sweeps in suddenly the whole show is as queer as folk. The queerness is reflected throughout the story - in Mr. Because this is the underlying metaphor of the story. Underneath all the creepy horror, what we have is Moffat writing a story about sexual freedom. The worst thing in the world - the thing that will absolutely kill each and every one of us - is if we are sexually repressed and dishonest about our sexuality. Sexual repression, including, crucially, self-repression as in Mr. Lloyd is shown to be cowardly and destructive.
And the futuristic, utopian vision of humanity is as the great sluts of the universe. And all of this is done with a sense of real, ecstatic joy. Which parallels it nicely with the sense of joy the episode takes in its own structure and Doctor Whoness. This is not an entirely incidental metaphor either. And by writing a story about the joyousness of sexual freedom that is simultaneously a giddy love letter to being Doctor Who, Moffat closes the circle. This is almost necessary given the World War II setting. Part of that is that the story creates a viable aesthetic very quickly.
The tension of the Battle of Britain, at night, with the gas mask children is a very sharp, compelling visual aesthetic. The bit about a damp little island saying no is particularly straightforward. This is an episode deeply concerned with social justice and with the material. So to sum up, what we have is a story about sexual freedom and its links to other kinds of joy and pleasure. One in which that - our pleasure and our joy - is treated as the thing that humanity can aspire towards. Towards dancing - a beautiful metaphor for sex that stresses the exuberant joy of it.
And one in which the reasons to love Britain are pop music and the welfare state. Death is stopped and reversed because we accept ourselves and our desires and just decide to dance. Moffat was thirteen for The Ark in Space, and its impact on him is well documented he wrote the intro for the reissue of the novelization, in fact. And I can relate to that vividly - I adored The Ark in Space my third Doctor Who story everbut found it sufficiently disturbing that I never actually rewatched it until adulthood. Because it was just too disturbing. And was, accordingly, the most remembered bit of Doctor Who I ever watched.
The Hinchcliffe era was a masterpiece of this. And that is what Moffat brought to the table that nobody, based on his prior work, would have expected: The ability to use horror well. This is the story in Series One that is made to be remembered. To lurk in the memories of people who, twenty, thirty, even forty years from now, will make the art of the future. A generation of kids remembering vividly their joyous terror of a story that tells them that love and sex and joy are good, that death can be fought against meaningfully, and that we are sustained by our relationships and kindnesses towards each other.
And this is branded, inexorably, in the psychochronography of a generation - one of the most lasting marks the series has ever or will ever make.