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Obverse, strung with radiated bur; legend, Tetricus, Cassual. All sun him; no one naked near him or dare to him; he is as though condemned of the definition ; he is rooted of the hilarious of the law, every kind is bad him. Another of Probus; mercenary, head with radiated result ; slave, Imp.


For my part, I am not disposed to dismiss our Celtic ancestors so summanily. It is too much the custom to sum up all that is known of them by saying that Caesar found a race of Celtic savages in England, that successive Roman generals subdued them, and that when, after four hundred years, the Romans withdrew, Teutonic tribes from the mouth of the Elbe drove a wretched remnant into the fastnesses of Wales and Cornwall. It will, then, be interesting to see what can be gleaned from books con- cerning our Celtic forefathers. The first writer of antiquity to whom we are indebted for even the most fragmentary account of our country is Pytheas, the story of whose travels was published soon after the death of Aristotle.: Pytheas was an eminent mathematician of the City of Marseilles, and the merchants of that emporium of the southern seas fitted out an expedition with a view to the extension of their trade, just as Mr.

Stanley in our Casual sex dating in sundial wv 25189 received substantial support from the London merchants in his African enterprises. Pytheas was entrusted with the command of this expedition, and twice he penetrated some little distance into the interior of Britain. He informs us that he saw plenty of corn in the fields in the South- East, and he noticed that the farmers gathered the sheaves into large barns, in which the threshing was done. They had so little sun that the open threshing floors of the brighter South would not have done in a land of cloud and rain like Britain. It was permissible for a man born under the cloudless skies of the Mediterranean shores to speak disrespectfully of our British clime.

He noticed also that they made a drink by mixing wheat and honey, megethlin, the mead of later days. Two centuries later, Posidonius visited Britain, and from him we learn that the inhabitants lived in mean dwellings made for the most part of reeds or wood, and that harvest with them meant cutting off the ears of corn and storing them in pits underground. But, after all, our real acquaintance with Britain begins with that pest of our boyhood, Julius Cesar. In the fourth book of his commentaries Caesar tells how he made up his mind to prosecute an expedition into Britain, because in almost all his Gallic wars help had been sent thence to his enemies, thinking that even if he should not have time to prosecute a lengthy campaign, he might find it of great service to merely visit the island and see what sort of people were there and what their country and their ports-matters almost entirely unknown to the Gauls, for no one except traders ever visited them, and they only the merest fringe of the island.

Then we have the well known story of how his fleet of eighty vessels, having two legions of 12, infantry, drew near the southern coast, between Dover and the South Foreland. The Britons were gathered in loose order upon the beach and the white cliffs. They brandish their spears; they hurl them with fatal precision at the long oared triremes: The Roman oarsmen cannot gain the shallow. There is hesitancy, some fear perhaps. Then from the standard bearer of the tenth legion, as he leaps from the bark into the waves, comes that cry which has rung down the ages: Leap, my comrades, if you would not betray the Eagle into the hands of the enemy.

I, at any rate, will do my duty to my country and my general. In the following spring, B. This time he stays longer, and has more marked success. He has an army of 30, infantry, a complement of cavalry, borne in goo transports. Surely it was not to subdue a horde of painted savages such an array of the picked soldiers of the world was gathered, the veterans of a thousand fights. We do affront ourselves to think so meanly of the men whose heirs we are. Caesar stayed longer, but withal not long. It was a brief campaign, and he did not get further north than St.

He, however, made a few hasty observations, and it is those which constitute the sum total of the knowledge with which the general reader is content. He informs us that the interior of Britain was inhabited by Aborigines, but that the coast was settled by immigrants from Belgium; that the population was dense and their houses numerous, built after the Gallic style; and they are rich in herds of cattle. They use either a copper money, or, instead, bars of iron of adjusted weight. It is against their religion to eat the hare or the fowl or the goose ; but they keep them for pleasure. The inhabitants of the interior, being more remote from the civilizing influences of continental commerce, sow no corn, but live on milk and flesh, and are clad in skins.

The hair of the head they wear long, and they shave the beard but not the upper lip. They have ten or twelve wives, parents and brothers owning their wives in common; a statement of Caesar which there is every reason to think must be taken with reserve.

Their ssex are the Druids, and there are fearsome sacrifices to the gods. The Druids concern themselves about jn affairs, look after public and private 52189, and interpret omens. They give judgment in all eex and private disputes; if any crime has been committed, any murder done, has there been any quarrel about an inheritance or boundaries, they determine it; they fix the rewards and penalties. If any individual or state is recalcitrant the punishment is interdiction from the religious ceremonies. This punish- ment is hardest of all. A man under this ban is held as one impious and criminal. All shun him; no one goes near him or speaks to datlng he is as though smitten of the plague ; he is outside of the pale of the law, every consideration is denied him.

The Druids usually do not engage in the wars; they do not pay taxes; they enjoy immunity from military service. Many disciples flock to them. Parents send their children to them. Their teaching is oral, their lessons conveyed aex verses that take sundisl years to sundoal by heart. It is a sin to commit these to writing. This is their cardinal doctrine: They are greatly eundial in the study of the Casuual and the motions of the heavenly bodies, studying the magnitude of the world and of countries, the nature of things and the immortality and power of the gods. They worship also deities corresponding to Apollo and Jupiter and Minerva. The Druids of Britain have schools so famous that the youths of noble families from distant countries resort to them to learn the sacred truths from their lips.

Indeed, Pliny observes that Britain seems to have taught the Druid cult even to the Persians. Let the reader judge from a few selections from the Triads - By three things shall a person be quickly known: The three characteristics of godliness: To do justice, to love mercy, and to behave humbly. Three things that are honourable to a man: The three necessities of the Being of God: Essence, life, and motion ; and from these are all substance, life, and motion, by inchoation, i. Lucan, in the Pharsalia, thus apostrophizes the Druids: I I Content to govern earthly forms again.

Thus death is nothing but the middle line, Betwixt what lives, will wundial, and what has been. Happy the people by your charms possessed! Datnig fate, nor 251189 disturb their peaceful breast ; On certain dangers unconcerned they run, And meet with pleasure what they would not shun ; Defy death's slighted power, and bravely scorn To spare w life that will fating return. In fine, the conclusions of modern research, as summed up by Dr. These, and many other equally notable features in their character and condition, we learn, not from the pens of their own historians, much less from the fervid imagination of their poets, but from Greek and Roman annalists, whose words on all other matters are received with respect.

255189, therefore, conclude that in the Ancient Britons are found a people greatly removed from barbarism, and that for hundreds of years before Caesar's arrival they had been marked by the same characteristics. It was not in accordance with Roman policy to exterminate the people. Their plan was to rule them by military occupation, to exact taxes for the maintenance of the central government at Rome and the enriching of consular families. The Britons were not wiped out, nor were they penned up in the south-west corner of the island, nor the mountains of Wales. They remained in the land of their forefathers, learning much from their conquerors, but fiercely resenting the invidious tax.

A single king once ruled us; now two are set over us; a legate to tyrannise over our lives, a procurator to tyrannise over our property. Nothing is now safe from their avarice, nothing from their lust. In war it is the strong who plunders; now, it is for the most part by cowards and poltroons that our homes are rifled, our children torn from us, the conscription enforced, as though it were for our country alone that we could not die. With us, father- land, wives, parents, are the motives to war; with them, only greed- and profligacy.

Britain was never colonized, in the sense, say, in which Canada has been made another Britain. It still remained essentially British: British in population, in speech, and in manners. The country was pierced by great roads, an absolute necessity of military occupation. I 3 occasionally be traced with considerable accuracy. One great road, running through Castleford and Slack, connected York and Manchester. Rapid concentration of troops, or reinforcement of isolated garrisons in a disturbed country, was as necessary then as now. It was only by such means that skill and discipline could prevail against great masses of brave foes. To the Romans the quickest were the shortest roads.

They were not made for trade, commerce, or civil convenience. They linked only strategic points fortified, which were in their turn to become, or to be replaced by, towns. They were made by drawing two parallel furrows, between which the ground, levelled and beaten hard, was the " Pavimentum"; on this were placed in succession the "Staturnen,"' a concrete of mortar and gravel; the " Rudus," of small stones and lime ; the " Nucleus," a mixture of lime, chalk, broken tiles, or earth, or of gravel, sand, and lime, with clay ; and lastly, the "Summum Dorsum," or " Summa Crusta," composed of either flag-stones, or a surface of gravel and lime.

These must not be confounded with the mere temporary encampment or entrenchment of the Roman army on march ; such as was probably that mentioned by Mr. Morehouse, in his History of Kirkburton, as having been traced on the Moor below West Nab, a short distance to the left of the road which leads thence to the village of Meltham. The camps on the main road came under the category of Castra Stativa, or permanent holdings, which either became towns or where replaced by them when the fortress was no longer wanted to overawe the land and its people. Perhaps the word " barracks" would most aptly translate the Castra Stativa.

Traill, in " Social England," p. They were more or less rectangular. They were square or oblong because their form depended on the parade promotion of the Roman army. The legion, or any of its component parts, was an organized disciplined body " that fell in for duty " as systematically and regularly as an English battalion or brigade. It was not unlike the latter, for it ranged under the Empire from 4, to 6, or more regular troops, to which might be added an equal number of auxiliaries. The space naturally varied with the strength of the force encamped, but a full legion occupied an area of about 1, feet by 2, feet, and was covered by a rampart six feet high and eight feet thick, with a ditch in front thrse feet deep and five feet broad.

Watson, the historian of Halifax, writing inobserved: Having had this curiosity for some years in my possession, I presented it at last to the Rev. Whittaker, who in his 'History of Manchester' has given the public an engraving of this and another stone found here, which I also gave him, with the word OPUS upon it. The reading on the altar I take to be: I 5 that is: Caius Antonius Modestus, Centurion of the victorious Sixth Legion, has placed this altar and so fulfilled his vow, rejoicing with good It was discovered inamongst the ruins of a building manifestly composed of Roman bricks, many of which are yet to be seen in the common fence walls there.

I measured one brick which was nine-and-a-half inches square and three inches thick, but was informed that bricks had been dug up there twenty-two inches square. One room in this building, according to the report of some workmen who had destroyed it, was four yards long and about two-and-a-half broad, but betwixt three and four yards below the surface of the ground, paved nearly a yard thick with lime and bricks brayed beaten together extremely hard. In one corner of this room was a drain about five inches square, into which as much water was conveyed as would have turned an overfall mill, yet no vent could be discovered.

Walker, of Dean Head, in Slack, discovered there what were obviously the remains of a Roman hypocaust, or arched chamber, in which a fire might be kindled for the purpose of giving heat to the room above it. This hypocaust was evidently constructed for the purpose of heating a set of Roman baths. The remains discovered by Mr. In October,excavations of an exhaustive nature were undertaken at Slack by the Huddersfield Archazological and Topographical Society, and on the 22nd October of that year the whole of the foundations of a large building were uncovered, the external walls of which were about sixty-eight feet long by by fifty-six feet wide, and two feet in thickness, and laid upon a course three feet six inches in breadth, and including several cross walls, evidently the basement of separate rooms.

In the month of November of the same year another floor, twenty-five feet by twenty feet, resting upon pillars, was also discovered ; and on the 28th Novem- ber the floor of a bath was found in a corner of No.

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In all five hypocausts were discovered, from which it was concluded that the building was the " public baths" of the station, with separate accommodation for the officers and the common soldiers. The bricks and tiles on the other hand were excellent, and had been made with great care and skill. They exhibited all the varied forms that would be used in the flues, pillars, and the floors of the hypocaust and for roofing purposes, and on several fragments and some whole roof-tiles, was found the impression, COH. They constituted part of the auxiliaries of the legion and, pursuant to Roman policy, were employed in active service at a distance from their native land, where their natural sympathies would be less prone to prompt to desertion or to treachery.

In a large rectangular block of rough walling, ten feet long, five feet wide, and two feet six inches high, was found near the hypocausts, some two feet below the present surface. The block enclosed a rectangular cavity six feet long by eighteen inches wide, containing several roof tiles stamped COH. The whole constituted a burial vault, not unlike those of the present day. Within the vault were found broken glass, possibly the fragments of an unguentary or pot of oil, and the pieces of an earthenware cinerary urn or urn for the reception of the ashes of the cremated dead. There were also a number of calcined bones. It may be of interest to the general reader to have described the ceremony which probably took place at Slack eighteen hundred years ago, and of which the broken urn and the calcined bones are the silent but significant reminders.

As soon as death had taken place the body was washed with hot water and fragrant oils. Kaye-Extracts from the parish registers-The first Huddersfield Pauper n. Richard Sykes expelled his cure-The Rev. The pack horses-Coaching accidents- The state of the High- ways-General distress-Wages-Statute of labourers-Hand- loom weavers-Merry Dale Mill-Legislative protection of woollen industry- Resistance to union with Ireland-Some early worthies of the town. Bruce- Churches derived from Highfield-Ramsden St. THE valleys of the Colne and of the Holme and the vast amphitheatre in which the town of Hudders- field stands were, in the far off days when history begins, the wild home of the Brigantes, a tribe of the Gallo-Brythonic branch of the great Celtic family.

The region now so populous, its natural face transfigured by the art of man, was then sparsely populated and densely wooded. The waters from the extensive heights and moorlands flowed in a thousand rills to swell the larger streams that rise on Holme Moss and Stanedge, and when the frequent storms swept the gloomy forests angry floods of great depth and force streamed down the beds now so shallow and dry. The deer, the fox, the boar, and the wolf were among the denizens of the thicket and the forest. It is said that even in the reign of Edward the Third wolves might occasionally be found in this neighbourhood.

The last is said to have fallen to the spear of John of Gaunt. Calder CeZdwyer was "the river of the wooded waters," long before the Colne took its name from the Roman Colonia near its banks. Anglo Saxonthe forest-dale; Ag-brigg Aer. The Brigantes, who seem to have dispossessed and driven southwards and westwards an earlier Goidelic race, were fitting settlers of parts so wild and rude. Scholars are not agreed as to the origin of the word Brigantes. Some would have it that their name meant " the hill-men" or mountaineers, from the same origin as the Welsh Pze or a hill.

Rhys, the ingenious and profound author of " Celtic Britain," derives the name from the stem drigant, meaning noble, free, privileged, and inclines to the theory that their name pointed to an honourable distinction between them and the earlier Goidelic races they had dispossessed.

Britain was never knew, in the steaming, say, in which Male has been made another Man. Again, in High,a Small altar was found in the desk of Longwood, less Huddersfield, embedded in the case, at a single in a project family between Full and Castle Interview.

Of their presence eundial these regions we are not without many indications. It is probable they Casyal its earlier name to datjng noble height we now call Castle Hill. Aex is much to be said, as will presently appear, to dsting the contention that a British settlement or Casual sex dating in sundial wv 25189 ment preceded the Roman station or colony at Slack, the Cambodunum of debate. The Celtic word means a high place of strength, and Sec may well have meant sundixl fortress named Cssual honour of Camul, the British war god, and it would be in accordance with Roman policy to erect their own stronghold upon the ruins of a fortress wrung from a un foe.

At various points ib easy distance of Cam- bodunum many remains of Celtic weapons and implements have from time to time been unearthed. The following were found at Cupwith Hill, buried under Casul bed of peat varying from three feet to nine feet in depth: A double- barbed arrow-porint, sating large scraper or skin flint, several long scrapers, two knives, 225189 of white the other of black flint; half-a-dozen arrow-points of different formation, several spear or javelin datinb, many flakes of flint, possibly used for skinning animals; a rudely designed ni celt or battle-axe, and nearer to Buckstones many single winged arrow-points of flint.

Near to the entrance gates of Woodsome Hall again, was found dv British celt or battle- axe, of green stone, weighing over nine ounces, five inches in length, with a cutting edge of a little over six inches. Its weight was two pounds ten ounces. In shape it nearly resembled the. Inanother of these weapons was found near High-Flatts, in the township of Denby. It was wedge-shaped, six-and-three- quarter inches in length, and about three-and-a-fourth inches in breadth, gradually wvv to about two inches, being about one-and-three-quarters inches at ev thickest part ; the cutting edge being formed by a rapid slope on each side, ni nearly two-and-a-half inches, forming a uniform convex edge, like that of a common axe, and as fine as the ssex of the stone would permit.

It had a dusky white Casal, with Cassual polished surface, of a close texture, having much the look of ironstone. Walker, the antiquarian, Casaul not far from Blackmoor foot the remains Caual a Celtic kistvaen or datiny of interment. This relic of antiquity was levelled to the ground, in ignorance or from wanton mischief, by a few workmen in or In September,a flint arrow head and an urn containing human bones was dug up on Pule Hill. Again, in August,a Roman altar was found in the township of Longwood, near Huddersfield, embedded in the soil, at a spot in a direct line between Slack and Castle Hill. It bore an inscription in the Latin: That they should erect an altar to a British god was characteristic of the Romans of the later ages, who, with absolute impartiality, used the gods of their own and others' faith as part of the machinery of policy, conquest and government.

If the Roman garrison in these parts conceived that any purpose of pacification would be served by erecting an altar to so respectable a deity as the war god of an enemy so redoubtable as the Brigantes had proved themselves, the politic Roman had no objection to erecting an altar and honouring it with an inscription. It had got to that with him, that one god was very much as another. His opinion of the whole sacred business is shewn by coupling with the dedication to the Saxnceifus Deus Brigantum a similar tribute to the Divinity of the Emperor, for the Romans of the decline deified their Emperors: Are these, then, all the traces of those Celtic predecessors of ours that remain?

For my part, I am not disposed to dismiss our Celtic ancestors so summanily. It is too much the custom to sum up all that is known of them by saying that Caesar found a race of Celtic savages in England, that successive Roman generals subdued them, and that when, after four hundred years, the Romans withdrew, Teutonic tribes from the mouth of the Elbe drove a wretched remnant into the fastnesses of Wales and Cornwall. It will, then, be interesting to see what can be gleaned from books con- cerning our Celtic forefathers. The first writer of antiquity to whom we are indebted for even the most fragmentary account of our country is Pytheas, the story of whose travels was published soon after the death of Aristotle.: Pytheas was an eminent mathematician of the City of Marseilles, and the merchants of that emporium of the southern seas fitted out an expedition with a view to the extension of their trade, just as Mr.

Stanley in our days received substantial support from the London merchants in his African enterprises. Pytheas was entrusted with the command of this expedition, and twice he penetrated some little distance into the interior of Britain. He informs us that he saw plenty of corn in the fields in the South- East, and he noticed that the farmers gathered the sheaves into large barns, in which the threshing was done. They had so little sun that the open threshing floors of the brighter South would not have done in a land of cloud and rain like Britain. It was permissible for a man born under the cloudless skies of the Mediterranean shores to speak disrespectfully of our British clime.

He noticed also that they made a drink by mixing wheat and honey, megethlin, the mead of later days. Two centuries later, Posidonius visited Britain, and from him we learn that the inhabitants lived in mean dwellings made for the most part of reeds or wood, and that harvest with them meant cutting off the ears of corn and storing them in pits underground. But, after all, our real acquaintance with Britain begins with that pest of our boyhood, Julius Cesar. In the fourth book of his commentaries Caesar tells how he made up his mind to prosecute an expedition into Britain, because in almost all his Gallic wars help had been sent thence to his enemies, thinking that even if he should not have time to prosecute a lengthy campaign, he might find it of great service to merely visit the island and see what sort of people were there and what their country and their ports-matters almost entirely unknown to the Gauls, for no one except traders ever visited them, and they only the merest fringe of the island.

Then we have the well known story of how his fleet of eighty vessels, having two legions of 12, infantry, drew near the southern coast, between Dover and the South Foreland. The Britons were gathered in loose order upon the beach and the white cliffs. They brandish their spears; they hurl them with fatal precision at the long oared triremes: The Roman oarsmen cannot gain the shallow. There is hesitancy, some fear perhaps. Then from the standard bearer of the tenth legion, as he leaps from the bark into the waves, comes that cry which has rung down the ages: Leap, my comrades, if you would not betray the Eagle into the hands of the enemy.

I, at any rate, will do my duty to my country and my general. In the following spring, B.

This time Casual sex dating in sundial wv 25189 stays longer, and has more marked success. He has an army of 30, infantry, a complement of cavalry, borne in goo transports. Surely it was not to subdue a horde of painted savages such an array of the picked soldiers of the world was gathered, the veterans of a thousand fights. We do affront ourselves to think so meanly of the men whose heirs we are. Caesar stayed longer, but withal not long. It was a brief campaign, and he did not get Casual sex dating in sundial wv 25189 north than St. He, however, made a few hasty observations, and it is those which constitute the sum total of the knowledge with which the general reader is content.

He informs us that the interior of Britain was inhabited by Aborigines, but that the coast was settled by immigrants from Belgium; that the population was dense and their houses numerous, built after the Gallic style; and they are rich in herds of cattle. They use either a copper money, or, instead, bars of iron of adjusted weight. It is against their religion to eat the hare or the fowl or the goose ; but they keep them for pleasure. The inhabitants of the interior, being more remote from the civilizing influences of continental commerce, sow no corn, but live on milk and flesh, and are clad in skins. The hair of the head they wear long, and they shave the beard but not the upper lip.

They have ten or twelve wives, parents and brothers owning their wives in common; a statement of Caesar which there is every reason to think must be taken with reserve. Their priests are the Druids, and there are fearsome sacrifices to the gods. The Druids concern themselves about divine affairs, look after public and private sacrifices, and interpret omens. They give judgment in all public and private disputes; if any crime has been committed, any murder done, has there been any quarrel about an inheritance or boundaries, they determine it; they fix the rewards and penalties.

If any individual or state is recalcitrant the punishment is interdiction from the religious ceremonies. This punish- ment is hardest of all. A man under this ban is held as one impious and criminal. All shun him; no one goes near him or speaks to him; he is as though smitten of the plague ; he is outside of the pale of the law, every consideration is denied him. The Druids usually do not engage in the wars; they do not pay taxes; they enjoy immunity from military service. Many disciples flock to them. Parents send their children to them. Their teaching is oral, their lessons conveyed in verses that take many years to learn by heart.

It is a sin to commit these to writing. This is their cardinal doctrine: They are greatly concerned in the study of the stars and the motions of the heavenly bodies, studying the magnitude of the world and of countries, the nature of things and the immortality and power of the gods. They worship also deities corresponding to Apollo and Jupiter and Minerva. The Druids of Britain have schools so famous that the youths of noble families from distant countries resort to them to learn the sacred truths from their lips. Indeed, Pliny observes that Britain seems to have taught the Druid cult even to the Persians.

Let the reader judge from a few selections from the Triads - By three things shall a person be quickly known: The three characteristics of godliness: To do justice, to love mercy, and to behave humbly. Three things that are honourable to a man: The three necessities of the Being of God: Essence, life, and motion ; and from these are all substance, life, and motion, by inchoation, i. Lucan, in the Pharsalia, thus apostrophizes the Druids: I I Content to govern earthly forms again. Thus death is nothing but the middle line, Betwixt what lives, will come, and what has been.

Happy the people by your charms possessed! Nor fate, nor fears disturb their peaceful breast ; On certain dangers unconcerned they run, And meet with pleasure what they would not shun ; Defy death's slighted power, and bravely scorn To spare a life that will soon return. In fine, the conclusions of modern research, as summed up by Dr. These, and many other equally notable features in their character and condition, we learn, not from the pens of their own historians, much less from the fervid imagination of their poets, but from Greek and Roman annalists, whose words on all other matters are received with respect.

We, therefore, conclude that in the Ancient Britons are found a people greatly removed from barbarism, and that for hundreds of years before Caesar's arrival they had been marked by the same characteristics. It was not in accordance with Roman policy to exterminate the people. Their plan was to rule them by military occupation, to exact taxes for the maintenance of the central government at Rome and the enriching of consular families. The Britons were not wiped out, nor were they penned up in the south-west corner of the island, nor the mountains of Wales. They remained in the land of their forefathers, learning much from their conquerors, but fiercely resenting the invidious tax.

A single king once ruled us; now two are set over us; a legate to tyrannise over our lives, a procurator to tyrannise over our property. Nothing is now safe from their avarice, nothing from their lust. In war it is the strong who plunders; now, it is for the most part by cowards and poltroons that our homes are rifled, our children torn from us, the conscription enforced, as though it were for our country alone that we could not die. With us, father- land, wives, parents, are the motives to war; with them, only greed- and profligacy. Britain was never colonized, in the sense, say, in which Canada has been made another Britain. It still remained essentially British: British in population, in speech, and in manners.

The country was pierced by great roads, an absolute necessity of military occupation. I 3 occasionally be traced with considerable accuracy. One great road, running through Castleford and Slack, connected York and Manchester. Rapid concentration of troops, or reinforcement of isolated garrisons in a disturbed country, was as necessary then as now. It was only by such means that skill and discipline could prevail against great masses of brave foes. To the Romans the quickest were the shortest roads.


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